Ulrich (Uli) Arndt was a physicist and engineer whose contributions to the development of a wide range of instrumentation for X-ray crystallography played an important part in our ability to solve the atomic structure of large biological molecules. Such detailed information about protein structures has for the past 50 years underpinned the huge advances in the field of molecular biology. His innovations spanned all aspects of data generation and collection, from improvements in X-ray tubes, through novel designs for diffractometers and cameras to film scanners and more direct methods of X-ray detection. When he started in the field, the intensities of individual X-ray reflections were often estimated by eye from films. By the end of his career the whole process of collecting from a crystal a three-dimensional data set, possibly comprising hundreds of thousands of measurements, was fully automated and very rapid.
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